Sources of Shakespeare's Works
and Elizabethan Literature
   by Barboura Flues and Robert Brazil copyright © 2002

1. Narrative and Dramatic Sources of Shakespeare
      from Geoffrey Bullough, 1975

All's Well That Ends Well
The Palace of Pleasure by William Painter, 1575 [novel #38]

Antony and Cleopatra
Plutarch's Lives of the Noble Grecians and Romanes, tr. Sir Thomas North, 1579, 1603
The Antiquities of the Jews by Flavius Josephus, tr. T. Lodge, 1602
The Civil Wars by Appian of Alexandra tr. W.B. 1578
The Deeds of Caesar, Anon., 13th century
Cleopatra, G. B. Giraldi Cinthio, 1583
The Tragedy of Antonie, Robert Garnier, tr. Mary Herbert, 1595
The Tragey of Cleopatra, Samuel Daniel, 1599

As You Like It
Rosalynde, Thomas Lodge, 1590
Syr Clyomon and Clamydes, 1599, [Anon]
[Lucan's Pharsalia, tr. Thomas May, 1627]
[The Roman Histories of Florus, Tr. E. M. B[olton], 1619]

Comedy of Errors
Menaechmi of Plautus, tr. W. Warner, 1595
Amphitruo of Plautus [untranslated in 16th century]
Confessio Amantis, John Gower [Story of Apollonius]Coriolanus
The Romane Historie of T. Livy, tr. Philemon Holland, 1600
Plutarch's Lives of the Noble Grecians and Romanes, tr. Sir Thomas North, 1579
Versions of Menenius's Fable
The Great Frost, T. Dekker(?), 1608
[Stowe's Annales of 1631]
[The Roman Histories of Florus, Tr. E. M. B[olton], 1621]

Holinshed's Chronicles [1587 edition]
The Decameron, Giovanni Boccaccio [Italian]
Frederyke of Jennen, Anon, 1560
Euphemia: A Comedy, Lope de Rueda, 1567
The Rare Triumphes of Love and Fortune, [Anon], 1589
Jerusalem Delivered, Torquato Tasso, tr. Edward Fairfax, 1600

Historiae Danicae, Saxo Grammaticus, [tr. O. Elton, 1894]
The Romane Historie, Titus Livius, tr. Philemon Holland, 1600
The Hystorie of Hamblet, [Anon., 1608]
Henrici Scotorum Regis Manes..., I. G. (John Gordon), 1587
Fratricide Punished, [Anon], tr., H. Howard Furness
Seneca, His Tenne Tragedies, Thomas Newton, 1581
Agamemnon, tr. John Studley, 1566
Troas, tr. Jasper Heywood, 1581
The St. Alban's Chronicle
Tarltons Newes of Purgatorie, [Anon], 1590
The murder of Francesco Maria I, Duke of Urbino
Eulogies of Men Famous for Warlike Virtue, Paolo Giovio, 1575
The Tragedie of Dido Queene of Carthage, Marlowe & Nashe, 1594
A Warning of Faire Women, [Anon], 1599
The Conflict of Conscience, Nathaniel Woods, 1581

Henry IV, Part 1
Holinshed's Chronicles [assumed to be the 1587 edition]
A Myrroure for Magistrates, 1599
The First Fowre Bookes of the Civile Wars, Samuel Daniel, 1595
The Chronicles of England, John Stow, 1580
Sir John Fastolf of Nacton
A New Enterlude called Thersytes, Anon.
Endimion, John Lyly, 1591
The Nature of the Four Elements, John Rastell(?), 1519
The World and the Child, Anon, 1522

Henry IV, Part 2
Holinshed's Chronicles [1587 edition]
The First Fowre Bookes of the Civile Wars, Samuel Daniel, 1595
The Union of the Two Noble and Illustre Famelies of Lancastre and Yorke, Edward Hall, 1548
The Governour, Sir Thomas Elyot, 1531
Tarlton's Jests, [not published until 1638]
The Chronicles of England, John Stow, 1580
Hickscorner, [Anon], 1510
The Famous Victories of Henry the Fifth, [Anon], 1598

Henry V
Holinshed's Chronicles [1587 edition]
The Annals of C. Tacitus, tr. R. Greneway, 1598
The Battle of Agincourt, Anon.
A Myrroure for Magistrates, 1599
The First Fowre Bookes of the Civile Wars, Samuel Daniel, 1595
Instructions, Observations and Orders Militarie, Sir John Smithe, 1595

Henry VI, Part 1
The Union of the Two Noble and Illustre Famelies of Lancastre and Yorke, Edward Hall, 1548
Holinshed's Chronicles [assumed to be the 1587 edition]
Historia Regum Britanniae, Geoffrey of Monmouth
Journal of the Siege of Rouen, Sir Thomas Coningsby, 1591

Henry VI, Part 2
The Union of the Two Noble …, Edward Hall, 1548
Acts and Monuments of Martyrs, John Foxe, 1583
A Chronicle at Large, R. Grafton, 1569
Holinshed's Chronicles [1587 edition]
Device for Lord Mayor's Pageant, T. Nelson, 1590
The Life and Death of Jack Straw, Anon, 1593/4
A Myrroure for Magistrates, 1599

Henry VI, Part 3
The Union of the Two Noble …, Edward Hall, 1548
A Myrroure for Magistrates, 1599
Holinshed's Chronicles [1587 edition]

Henry VIII
Holinshed's Chronicles [1587 edition]
Acts and Monuments of Martyrs, John Foxe, 1583
When You See Me, You Know Me, Samuel Rowley, 1605

Julius Caesar
Plutarch's Lives of the Noble Grecians and Romanes, tr. Sir Thomas North, 1579
The Histories of Sallust, [tr. Thomas Heywood, 1608]
The Roman History of Velleius Paterculus, [tr. Sir R. LeGrys, 1632]
The First Booke of the Annales of Cornelius Tacitus [tr. Grenewey 1598]
The Historie of Twelve Caesars, Suetonius, [tr. Philemon Holland, 1606]
The Civil Wars, Appian of Alexandria, tr. W. B., 1578
The Roman Histories of Florus, [tr. E. M. B[olton],1619]
The Governour, Sir Thomas Elyot, 1531
The Mirror for Magistrates, 1587
Il Cesare, Orlando Pescetti, 1594
Caesar Interfectus, Richard Eedes
Ceasar's Revenge, [Anon], 1607

King John
King Johan, John Bale
Acts and Monuments of Martyrs, John Foxe, 1583
The Union of the Two Noble …, Edward Hall, 1548
Holinshed's Chronicles [1587 edition]
The English Chronicle of Radulph of Coggeshall
The Troublesome Raigne of King John, [Anon], 1591

King Lear
Letters on the Annesley Case:
  Sir John Wildegos to Lord Cecil,
  Sir Thomas Walsingham to Lord Cecil,
  Cordell Annesley to Lord Cecil,
  Epitaph on Brian Annelsley
Historia Anglicana, tr. Geoffrey of Monmouth [untranslated in 16th century]
"An Historical Description of Iland of Britaine," William Harrison
Remaines Concerning Britaine, William Camden, 1606
The Mirror for Magistrates, 1587
The Faerie Queene, Spenser, 1596
Albion's England, William Warner, 1589
The True Chronicle Historie of King Leir..., [Anon], 1605
A Declaration of egregious Popish Impostures, Samuel Harsnett, 1603

Love's Labor's Lost
The French Academie, tr. T. B[owes], 1586
The Chronicles of Enguerrand de Monstrelet,
  [Not translated until T. Johnes, 1810]
The History of the Civil Wars of France,
 [Not translated until H. C. Davila, 1678]
[Gesta Grayorum, 1688 (W. W. Greg Malone Society Reprints, 1915)]
[Travels of Sir Jerome Horsey in Russia at the Close of the 16th Century,
  E. A. Bond (Hakluyt Society, 1856)]

Vertumnus Sive Annus Recurrens, Matthew Gwinn, 1607
A Continuance of Albion's England, William Warner, 1606
The Chronicle of Andrew Wyntoun
Holinshed's Chronicles of England, Scotland and Ireland, 1587
The Chronicle of Scotland
"The Description of Scotland," (Ancient Scottish customs)
The Chronicles of England, Young Siward
The Chronicles of England, Edward the Confessor
Rerum Scoticarum Historia, George Buchanan, [tr. T. Page, 1690]
De Origine, Moribus, et Rebus Gestis Scotorum, John Leslie, 1578 [Latin]
A Defensative against the Poyson of Supposed Prophecies, Henry Howard, 1583
Seneca's Medea & Agamemnon plays, tr. John Studley, 1566
Gesta Romanorum, [Anon]
Thomas of Reading, Thomas Deloney, 1600
An Alphabet of Tales, Estienne de Besancon

Measure for Measure
De Sermone Domini in Monte Secundum Matthaeum, Saint Augustine of Hippo [I, 16]
Hecatommithi, G. B. Giraldi Cinthio, 1583 [Story of Epitia]
Epitia, G. B. Giraldi Cinthio, 1583
Promos and Cassandra, George Whetstone, 1578
The Second part ... of the Boke entituled Too Good to be true, T. Lupton, 1581
The Adventures of Brusanus, Prince of Hungaria, Barnaby Riche, 1592

Merchant of Venice
Il Pecorone, Ser Giovanni Firoentino, 1558
The Three Ladies of London, R. W., 1584
The Orator, A. Silvayn, tr. L.P., 1596
Zelauto or The Fountaine of Fame, Anthony Munday, 1580
The Jew of Malta, Christopher Marlowe
Il Novellino, Masuccio, [tr. W. G. Waters, 1895]
Gesta Romanorum, [Sir F. Madden, 1838]

Merry Wives of Windsor
Ovid's Metamophoses, Book III, 138-252 [Golding translation]
Riche his Farewell to Militarie Profession, Barnaby Riche,1581
[Two brethren and their wives]
Tarltons Newes out of Purgatorie, 1590 (Anon) [Tale of two lovers of Pisa]
Endimion, John Lyly, 1591
Il Pecorone, by Fiorentino, 1558 [Giornata I, Novella II]
[Count Mompelgard in England - in J. Rathgeb's Journal
(Tr. in England as Seen by Foreigners, W. B. Rye, 1865)]
[Governor of Dieppe in trouble - in a letter from Sir John Levenson]

Midsummer Night's Dream
Canterbury Tales, Chaucer [The Knight's Tale]
Plutarch's Lives, tr. Sir Thomas North, 1579 [Theseus]
Huon de Bordeaux, tr. Lord Berners, c. 1545
The Discoverie of Witchcraft, Reginald Scot, 1584
Thesaurus Linguae Romanae et Britannicae, T. Cooper, 1573
The XI Books of the Golden Asse conteigninge the Metamorphoses of Lucius Apuleius,
tr. W. Adlington [Book III, Ch. 17]
Ovid's Metamorphoses, [tr. Golding], 1575
A Handefull of Pleasant Delites, Clement Robinson & divers others, 1584
The Tragedy of Pyramus and Thisbe [manuscript]

Much Ado About Nothing
Orlando Furioso, Ludovico Arosto, tr. Sir John Harrington, 1591, Book V
The Faerie Queene, Edmund Spenser. 1596, Book II, Canto IV [Story of Phedon]
La Prima Parte de le Nouvelle del Bandello, Lucca, 1554, Novella 22
Fedele and Fortunio, 1585 [by "M. A."] [credited to Anthony Munday]

Gli Hecatommithi, G. B. Giiraldi Cinthip, 1566
Certaine Tragicall Discourses of Bandello, tr. Geoffrey Fenton, 1567
The Generall Historie of the Turkes, Richard Knolles, 1603

Pericles, Prince of Tyre
Confessio Amantis, John Gower [Book VIII]
The Patterne of Painefull Adventures, Lawrence Twine, 1594(?)
The Countess of Pembroke's Arcadia, P. Sidney, 1590
The Painfull Adventures of Pericles, Prince of Tyre, George Wilkins, 1608
The Orator, Alexander Silvayn, tr. Lazarus Piot, 1596

Rape of Lucrece
The Legende of Good Women, Chaucer
Ovid's Fasti, [1520] [Not translated in Shakespeare's lifetime] [Book II]
The Palace of Pleasure, William Painter, 1566 [Novel 2]

Richard II
The Union of the Two Noble … , Edward Hall, 1548
A Myrroure for Magistrates, 1599
Holinshed's Chronicles [assumed to be the 1587 edition]
The Chronicles of Froissart, tr. Lord Berners, 1523-5
Chronicque de la Traison et mort de Richart Deux Roy Denleterre,
[tr. Benjamin Williams]
The First Fowre Bookes of the Civile Wars, Samuel Daniel, 1595
Thomas of Woodstock, Anon

Richard III
The Union of the Two Noble … , Edward Hall, 1548
A Myrroure for Magistrates, 1599
Richardus Tertius, Thomas Legge, 1579
Seneca's Hercules Furens, tr. Jasper Heywood, 1561
The True Tragedy of Richard III, [Anon], 1594
The Rose of England, [Anon]

Romeo and Juliet
The Tragicall Historye of Romeus and Juliet, Arthur Brooke, 1562

Taming of the Shrew
The Taming of a Shrew, [Anon], 1594
Thresor d'histoires admirables et memorables, S. Goulart, [tr. E. Grimeston, 1607]
Supposes, George Gascoigne, 1566

The Mirrour of Knighthood, tr. M. Tyler, 1578
The Mirrour of Knighthood, tr. R. Parry, c. 1586
Ovid's Metamorphoses, [tr. Golding], 1567
A Most Pleasant comedie of Mucedorus, [Anon], 1598
John a Kent and John a Cumber, Anthony Munday, 1594
[Hymenaei, A Masque, Ben Jonson, 1606]
[Colloquia: The Shipwreck, a Dialogue, Desiderius Erasmus, tr. W. B[urton], 1606]
[A True Reportory of the Wrake and Redemption of Sir Thomas gates, Knight, William Strachey, 1610]
[A true Declaration of the estate of the Colonie of Virginia..., 1610]
[A True and Sincere declaration of the purpose and ends of the Plantation begun in Virginia, 1610]
[The Fair Sidea, Jacob Ayrer, 1618, tr. H. H. Furness]
[The Three Satyrs, A Pastoral Tale, Anon., early 17th c.]

Timon of Athens
Plutarch's Lives, tr. North, 1579
The Palace of Pleasure, William Painter, 1566 [Novel 2]
Lucian's The Dialogue of Timon, tr. N. da Lonigo, 1536
Timone, M. M. Boiardo, c. 1487
Theatrum Mundi, P. Boaistuau, tr. John Alday, c. 1566
Timon [Anon] after 1601
Campaspe, John Lyly, 1584

Titus Andronicus
The History of Titus Andronicus, Anon.
The Lamentable and Tragical History of Titus Andronicus (ballad)
A Lamentable Ballad, [Anon]
Plutarch's Parallel Lives, tr. North, 1597 [Scipio Africanus]
Seneca's Thyestes, tr. Jasper Heywood, 1560

Troilus and Cressida
The Seaven Bookes of Homers Iliads, tr. George Chapman, 1598
The Iliads of Homer, tr. G. Chapman, 1611
The Hystorye Sege and Dystruccyon of Troye, John Lydgate, 1513
The Recuyell of the Historyes of Troye, Raoul Lefevre, tr. William Caxton, 1474
The Testament of Cresseid, [R. Henryson 1593]
Ovid's Metamorphoses, [tr. Golding], 1567
Troilus and Cressida Plot [Manuscript in British Museum]

Twelfth Night
Gl'Ingannati (The Deceived), [Academy of the Thuderstruck in Siena] 1537
Gl'Ingannati (The Deceived), Nicolo Secchi, 1547
L'Interesse, Nicolo Secchi, 1581
Riche his Farewell to Militarie Profession, Barnaby Riche,1581
The Famous History of Parismus, Emanuel Forde, 1598 [Loves of Violetta]
The Sidney Papers - Letter by Roland White
Merry Passages and Jests, [item by Nicholas L'Estrange]

Two Gentlemen of Verona
The Governour, Sir Thomas Elyot, 1531, [Book II, Ch. 12 Titus and Gisippus]
Euphues: Anatomy of Wit, John Lyly, 1579
Diana Enamorada, J. de Montemayor, tr. B. Yonge, 1598
The Countess of Pembroke's Arcadia, Sir Philip Sidney, 1590 [Book II]
Flavio Traditio, F. Scala, 1611
Tragedia von Julio und Hyppolita, tr. Georgina Archer

Venus and Adonis
Ovid's Metamorphoses, [tr. Golding], 1567
Book X [Venus and Adonis]
Book IV [Salmacis and Hermaphroditus]
Book III [Narcissus]Winter's Tale
Pandosto. The Triumph of Time, Robert Greene, 1588
The Countess of Pembroke's Arcadia, P. Sidney, 1590
Parismenos, Emmanuel Forde
The Fisherman's Tale, Francis Sabie, 1595
Flora's Fortune, Francis Sabie, 1595
The Second Part of Conny-catching, Robert Greene, 1592
The Third Part of Conny-catching, Robert Greene, 1592
The Ninth Book of Amadis de Gaule, F. de Silva, C. Colet, 1577
Ovid's Metamorphoses, [tr. Golding], 1575;
[Humour Out of Breath, John Day, 1608]
[Mucedorus, [Anon], 1610]
[The History of the Tryall of Chevalry, [Anon], 1605]


2. An Analysis of the Major Shakespeare Sources
by B. Flues © 2002

Books that Shakespeare Read in Another Language

Available only in Latin
Erasmus. Colloquia (1500) [Macbeth]
Gower, John. Confessio Amantis (14th c.) [Pericles]
Apollonius of Tyre [Pericles]
Ovid (Publius Ovidius Naso). Amores [Venus and Adonis]
Ovid (Publius Ovidius Naso). Fasti [Rape of Lucrece]
Paris, Matthew (d. 1259). Chronica Majora [King John]
Plautus, Titus Maccius, Menaechmi, tr.1595 by William Warner [Comedy of Errors]
Plautus, Titus Maccius. Amphitryon. [Comedy of Errors]
Vergil, Polydore. Historia Anglia [Richard III]
Virgil. Aeneid [Rape of Lucrece]
Virgil. Georgics [Henry V]
Misc. Several Latin biographies [Henry V]

Available only in Spanish
Montemayor, Jorge de. Diana Enamorada (in Spanish). later tr. by Bartholomew Young (1598). [Two Gentlemen of Verona, Midsummer Nights Dream, As You Like It.]

Available only in French
Boccaccio, Giovanni. Decameron. (in French)/ tr. by Antoine le Macon (1545). [Two Gentlemen of Verona]Available only in Italian
Bandello, Matteo. Story (1554) [Much Ado About Nothing]
Cinthio. Hecatommithi (1565) [Measure for Measure, Othello]

Available only in Greek
Lucian. Timon the Misanthrope (2d c.) [Timon of Athens]

Read in all three languages: English, French and Italian
Pierre Boaistuau, Pierre. Play (1559)
Bandello (1554) Story (1554)
Arthur Brooke (attributed) Romeus and Juliet [Romeo and Juliet]

Available only in Latin or French
Fiorentino, Giovanni. Il Pecarone (1558) [Merchant of Venice, Merry Wives of Windsor]

Available only in French or Italian
Belleforest, Francois. Histoires Tragiques (1580); from
Saxo Grammaticus, Historiae Danicae (1514) [Hamlet]

Sources with an Oxford Connection

Bedingfield, Thomas. tr. of Girolamo Cardano, De Consolatione (1573). Hanmlet's book.
Dedicated to Oxford, with long introductory letter and poem by the Earl. [Hamlet; others]

Brooke, Arthur. The Tragical Historie of Romeus and Juliet. William Brooke (Lord Burleigh's closest friend) was a close relative of the recently deceased Arthur Brooke.
[Romeo and Juliet, Two Gentlemen of Verona, 3 Henry VI]

Chapman, George. Homer's Iliad (1598). Chapman wrote a speech in Bussy d'Amboise describing a meeting with Oxford and praising the personal qualities of the Earl. Versions by William Caxton and John Lydgate. [Troilus and Cressida]

Edwards, Richard Palamon and Arcite (lost play). For ceremonies at which Oxford received degree. Edwards an early Oxford collaborator. [Two Noble Kinsmen]

Gascoigne, George. Supposes A relative and early collaborator of Oxford. [Taming of the Shrew]

Golding, Arthur. tr. Ovid Metamorphoses (1567). Oxford's uncle, who decidated translations of Justine's Abridgement of Trogus Pompeius and The Psalmes of David and others, With M. John Calvins Commentaries to the Earl. [Midsummer Night's Dream, Richard III, The Tempest, Titus Andronicus, Troilus and Cressida, Venus and Adonis]

Greene, Robert. Pandosto (1588). Greene (d. 15920) an Oxford protoge, Dedicated Greene's Carde of Fancie - to the Earl. [Winters Tale] Follows the novel closely; some passages almost verbatim.

Howard, Henry, the Earl of Surrey. tr. Virgil's Aeneid. Oxford's uncle, the poet who devised the form of the so-called Shakespearean sonnet. [Rape of Lucrece]
Howard, Henry, the Earl of Surrey, tr. Virgil's Georgics. [Henry V]

Lodge, Thomas. Play Rosalynde (1590). Oxford protege; Euphuist style. [As You Like It]

Lyly, John. Early plays/novels. Oxford's Secretary. [Two Gentlemen of Verona, Midsummer Night's Dream, Merry Wives of Windsor]

Munday, Anthony. Zelauto (1580). Oxford protege/secretary.[Merchant of Venice]
Munday, Anthony. The Book of Sir Thomas More, mss. written in Munday's hand except for insert.

Spenser, Edmund. The Faerie Queene (1590). Oxford one of 17 dedications. [Richard III]

Other Sources

Based on real incident
(France, 1580?). [Measure for Measure]

No known written source.
Armado taken from a well-known character in Elizabethan Court.
[Love's Labours Lost]

No basic story known; possibly from a popular English ballad.
[Titus Andronicus] (see Arthur Golding above)

Sources, Alphabetically

Apuleius Lucius The Golden Ass 1566 [Midsummer Nights Dream]
Berners, Lord, tr. Jean Froissart Chroniques (1523-250 [Richard II]
Camden, William. Remaines (1605) [Coriolanus]
Chaucer, Geoffrey.Troilus and Criseyde (1482) [Troilus& Cressida]
Chaucer, Geoffrey. Several tales [Midsummer Nights Dream]
Chaucer, Geoffrey. Canterbury Tales (The Knight's Tale) [The Two Noble Kinsmen]
Copland, Robert, Gyl of Braintfords Testament (1560) [Merry Wives of Windsor]
Daniel, Samuel. Poem The Civil Wars Between the Houses of York and Lancaster (pub. 1595)
   [Richard II, Henry IV, Parts I and II]
Eden, Robert. Historie of Travaille (1577) [The Tempest]
Elyot, Thomas. The Boke Called the Governor (1531) [Henry IV, Part II]
Fabyan, Robert. The New Chronicle of England and of France (1516)
    [Henry VI, Paets I and II, Cymbeline]
Florio, John, tr. Montaigne, Essays, (1603). Florio was tutor of the Earl of Southampton,
    and brother-in-law of Francis Meres. [The Tempest]
Foxe, John, Book of Martyrs [King John, Henry VI, Part II, Henry VIII]
Geneva Bible [The Tempest] (Apostle Paul's shipwreck off the coast of Crete).
Geoffrey of Monmouth. History of the Kings of Britain (1138-39) [Cymbeline, King Lear]
Hall, Edward, Union of the Two Noble and Illustrious Families of Lancaster and York (1548)
   [Henry V, Henry VI, Richard III, Henry VIII]
Harrington, Sir John, tr. Ludovico Ariosto, Orlando Furioso, Ariodante and Genevra (1532)
   [Much Ado about Nothing]
Harsnett, Samuel. A Definition of Egregious Popish Imposters (1603) [King Lear]
Higgins, John. A Mirror for Magistrates (1587) [King Lear, Cymbeline, Richard III]
Holland, Philemon, tr. Livy, Ab urbe condita, tr. as The Romane Historie (1600).
    [Coriolanus, Rape of Lucrece]
Holinshed, Raphael. Chronicles (2d ed., 1587)
    [King John, Richard II, Henry IV, Parts I & II, Henry V, Henry VI, Parts I, II, & III,
     Henry VIII, Cymbeline, King Lear, Macbeth]
James I. Daemonologie (1599) [Macbeth]
Jourdan, Sylvester. Jourdan's account of a shipwreck off Bermuda. In 1610.
    [This is the only reason cited for the 1611 play dating. [The Tempest]]
Lipton, Thomas, Too good to be True (1581) [Measure for Measure]
More, Thomas. History of King Richard the thirde (1543)[Richard III]
North, Thomas, tr. Plutarch, Lives of the Noble Grecians and Romans (1579)
   [Timon of Athens, J. Caesar, Coriolanus, Anthony and Cleopatra, Mid. Nigh's Dream]
Painter, William, tr. Boccaccio Decameron (1353, tr. 1575) [All'sWell that Ends Well]
Painter, Wiliam, tr. The Palace of Pleasure (1575) [Cymbeline, Winters Tale]
Painter, William, tr. Livy, Palace of Pleasure (1566) [Timon of Athens, Venus & Adonis]
Puttenham, George. Arte of English Poesie (1589) [Winters Tale]
Rich, Barnabe. Farewell to the Military Profession (1581) [Merry Wives of Windsor, Twelfth Night]
Robinson, Richard, tr. Gesta Romanorum. (1577 and 1595) [Merchant of Venice]
Scot, Reginald. The Discoverie of Witchcraft (1584) [Midsummer Nights Dream, Macbeth]
Stowe, John. Annals of England (1592) [II Henry IV]
Twine, Lawrence. The Patterne of Painefull Adventures (ca. 1576) [Pericles]
Whetstone, George, Promos and Cassandra (1578) [Measure for Measure]
Anon. The Famous Victories of Henry the Fifth (before 1588) [Henry IV, Parts I and II, Henry V]
Anon. tr. of Dutch tale Frederyke of Jennen (1518, tr. 1520, 1560)
Anon. The Rare Triumphs of Love and Fortune (1582, pub. 1589) [Cymbeline]
Anon. Thomas of Woodstock (anon., ca. 1592-95) [Richard II, Henry IV, Parts I and II]
Anon. The True Chronicle History of King Leir (play, ca. 1590).
Itself based primarily on:
    Geoffrey of Monmouth History of the Kings of England;
    Raphael Holinshed Second Book of the History of England (1587);
    John Higgins Mirror for Magistrates (1574). [King Lear]

3. Sources Missed by Bullough

Hamlet - Cardanus Comfort [see above]


4. Additional Sources Shakespeare may have used

Bibles: Geneva, Bishop's, Tindale's, King James's
The state of Melford church as I, Roger Martyn, did know it
Hugh Latimer, Convocation sermon, 1536
The Ten Articles, 1536
Robert Parkyn's narrative of the reformation, 1532-54
Rose Hickman's memoir of Protestant life under Mary
John Foxe's Acts and Monuments
Accounts and inventories of St. Edmund's parish
The Book of Common Prayer, 1559
An Act for the Uniformity of Common Prayer and Divine Service, 1559
The Thirty-Nine Articles, 1563
The homily against contention and brawling
Thomas Becon's New Catechism, 1559
A view of popish abuses yet remaining in the English church, 1572
Archbishop Grindal's Injunctions for the laity in the Province of York, 1571
Archbishop Grindal's letter to the queen, 1576
George Gifford's Country Divinity, 1582
Philip Stubbes, The manner of sanctifying the Sabbath, 1583
Oxfordshire archdeaconry court, 1584
William Allen's Defence of English Catholics
John Stubbs, The Discovery of a Gaping Gulf, 1579
Marprelate Books 1589 - 1593
William perkins, A Golden Chain, or the Description of Theology, 1590
Samuel Ward's diary, 1595
Bishop Matthew's reprot on the Hampton Court Conference, 1604
Constitutions and Canons Ecclesiastical , 1604
Archbishop Bancroft's Letter regarding Catholic recusants, 1605
William Bradshaw's English Puritanism, 1605

Elizabethan Critical Essays Shakespeare might have read:
[In chronological order]
Thomas Wilson, The Arte of Rhetoric, 1553 [many reprints through 1585]
Roger Ascham, The Scholemaster, 1570
Richard Willes, Poematum Liber, 1573
George Gascoigne, Certayne Notes of Instruction, 1575
George Whetstone, Dedication to Promos and Cassandra, 1578
Thomas Lodge, A Defense of Poetry, 1579
Spencer-Harvey correspondence 1579-80
'E. K.', Epistle Dedicatory to The Shepheards Calender, 1579
Richard Stanyhurst, Dedication and Preface to Aeneid, 1582
Sir Philip Sidney, An Apologie for Poetrie, 1583/95
King James VI, Ane Schort Treatise conteining some Reulis and autelis to be obseruit and eschewit in Scottis Poesie, 1584
William Webbe, A Discourse of English Poetrie, 1586
Abraham Fraunce, The Arcadian Rhetorike, 1588
Abraham Fraunce, The Lawyer's Logic, 1588
George Puttenham, The Arte of English Poesie, 1589
Thomas Nashe, Preface to Greene's Menaphon, 1589
Anatomie of Absurdity, 1589
Puttenham, The Arte of English Poesie, 1589
Sir John Harington, A Preface, or rather a Briefe Apologie of Poetrie (prefixed to Orlando Furioso)
Thomas Nashe, Preface to Astrophel and Stella, 1591
Gabriel Harvey, Pierce's Supererogation (1593) and A New Letter of Notable Contents, 1593
Richard Carew, The Excellency of the English Tongue, ?1595-6
George Chapman, Preface to Seuen Bookes of the Iliades of Homere, 1598, and dedication of Achilles Shield, 1598
Francis Meres, Palladis Tamia, 1598
William Vaughan, The Golden Grove, 1600
Thomas Campion, Observations in the Art of English Poesie, 1602

5. Possible Shakespeare Classical Sources online:

Latin and Greek Authors

Classic texts: translations of Latin and Greek authors

Latin Texts, Ad Fontes Academy, Latin library (online texts of major works)

Five 16th century Latin plays. From the collection of Comedies & Tragedies edited by Nicholas Brylinger, Basel, 1540 Translation (C) C. C. Love, Toronto 1992

Shakespeare and the Stoics

Aelius Spartianus, The Life of Antoninus Caracalla,
trans. David Magie, Loeb Classical Library (1924)

Aesop Fables transl. Georg Fyler Townsend

Aesop, Fables in English

Anon. Gesta Romanorum, (in Latin)

Apuleius Lucius The Golden Ass

Apuleius, Metamorphoses, in Latin at FORVM ROMANVM

Aristotle, Poetics, transl. by S. H. Butcher

Betulius, Susanna, Translation (C) C. C. Love, Toronto 1992

Cicero, De officis transl. and annotated by Ben Schneider

Cicero, orations and letters in Latin

Euripides, Hippolytus, Engl. (Coleridge)

Euripides, Trojan Women, Engl.

Josephus Flavius, Antiquitates Judaicae in Greek (ed. B. Niese) and English (ed. William Whiston)

Florus, Epitomae (in Latin)

Herodotus, The Histories, in Greek and English (A.D.Godley)

Homer, Iliad, trans. Samuel Butler

Homer, Odyssey, transl. Samuel Butler

Chapman, George: Homer's Odysseys

Homer, Odyssey, in Greek:

Titus Livius, Ab urbe condita in Latin and English (Rev. Canon Roberts)

Lucan, Pharsalia (The Civil War), transl. Edward Ridley, 1896

Lukianos von Samosata, Timon (Dialog), dt. von Chr. M. Wieland

Lukianos, Dialogoi (in Greek)

Ovid, Metamorphoses in Latin (Hugo Magnus) and English (Brookes More),

Ovid, Metamorphoses, in Latin:

Ovid, Metamorphoses, transl. into English verse
under the direction of Sir Samuel Garth by Dryden, Pope, Addison, Congreve

Ovid, Metamorphosis in English, Garth, Dryden, Pope etc.:]

Plautus, Menaechmi, in Latin]

Plutarch, Plutarch, Parallel Lives, trans. North in J.W. Skeats edition.

Plutarch, Lives, transl. by Dryden

Plutarch, Lives, transl. by Dryden

Plutarch's Antony, transl. by Dryden (02/09/99)

Prokopius of Caesarea: Secret History, translated by Richard Atwater,
(Chicago: P. Covici, 1927), repr. Ann Arbor, 1961

Procopius: Alaric's Sack of Rome, 410 AD. Ancient History Sourcebook: From: History of the Wars, 7 vols., trans. H. B. Dewing (Cambridge, Mass., and London: Harvard UP & Wm. Heinemann, 1914; reprint ed., 1953-54), II.11-23.

Sallust, Fragmenta Historicarum

Seneca, Medea (Latin)

Seneca, Thyestes: Marwell, Andrew: The Second Chorus from Seneca's Thyestes

Seneca's Moral Essay & Epistles

Suetonius, De Vita Caesarum, Divus Iulius
(The Lives of the Caesars, The Deified Julius), written trans. J.C.Rolfe, 1920

Velleius Paterculus Romanae Historiae in Latin

Virgil: Aeneid (Dryden)

Virgil in Late Antiquity, the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, bibliography and links

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